Characteristics of photovoltaic power generation
Compared with grid power supply, the maintenance cost of photovoltaic power generation system is low, but the price of electricity is still relatively high. With the increase of photovoltaic power generation, the price of electricity will gradually decrease. Compared with other power generation systems, solar photovoltaic power generation has the following advantages:
(1) Solar energy is inexhaustible and inexhaustible. The solar energy that shines on the earth every day is 600 times the energy consumed by human beings. Therefore, solar photovoltaic power generation is safe and reliable, and will not suffer the impact of energy crisis or unstable fuel market.
(2) Solar energy is available everywhere and can be supplied nearby without long-distance transmission, thus avoiding power loss such as power transmission lines.
(3) The power generation components are not easy to be damaged, and the maintenance is simple.
(4) The construction period of photovoltaic power generation system is short. Due to the modular installation, it can not only be used in photovoltaic power stations as small as a few milliwatts of solar calculator and as large as tens of megawatts, but also can arbitrarily add or reduce the solar cell capacity according to the increase or decrease of load, which is not only convenient and flexible, but also avoids waste.
(5) Solar energy does not use fuel, and the operating cost is very small.
(6) Photovoltaic power generation does not produce any waste, has no pollution, noise and other public hazards, and has no adverse effects on the environment. It is an ideal clean energy. The installation of a 1kW photovoltaic power generation system can reduce the emission of CO₂ 600~2300kg, NO 16kg, SO₂ 9kg and other particles 0.6kg every year.
Independent photovoltaic power generation systems are commonly used in remote areas far away from the power grid. They have the advantages of small size, easy installation, use and maintenance, and low cost. Since there is no battery part in the system, the working time is longer, which can basically meet the needs of ordinary users. From a short-term perspective, photovoltaic power generation, as a supplement to conventional energy sources, mainly solves the electricity demand in special fields; and from a long-term perspective, photovoltaic power generation will enter the power market with decentralized power sources and partially replace conventional energy sources, which is of great significance in terms of environmental protection and energy strategy.
Overview of the development of photovoltaic power generation industry
Since the late 1970s, in view of the limited supply of conventional energy sources and the increasing pressure on environmental protection, the photovoltaic power generation industry has been highly valued in many countries. The United States, Germany, Japan and other countries have successively introduced relevant policies to increase the development of the solar photovoltaic power generation industry. According to the research report of the European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), the global photovoltaic industry has developed rapidly in the past ten years, and the growth rate has been increasing year by year. From 1998 to 2008, the global cumulative photovoltaic installed capacity has grown at an average annual rate of more than 30%. However, the development of various countries is very uneven, especially in recent years, affected by the global economic recession, the development speed of photovoltaic power generation in some countries has slowed down due to the impact of policy adjustments.
However, from a long-term perspective, it is very optimistic. The international photovoltaic market has begun to move rapidly from remote areas and special applications to urban grid-connected power generation and photovoltaic building integration. Solar photovoltaic power generation has shifted from “supplementary energy” to “alternative energy” globally. In particular, China is expected to become one of the world’s three largest photovoltaic power generation markets in the near future. According to the forecast of the EU Joint Research Center, by 2030, solar photovoltaic power generation will account for more than 10% of the world’s total electricity supply, and by 2040 this proportion will reach more than 20%, and it will become the main body of the world’s energy supply in the near future. At present, the development of the solar photovoltaic power generation industry is mainly affected by photovoltaic cell technology, photovoltaic power generation costs, photovoltaic power generation policies, and the access to photovoltaic power grids.